Listed here are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA). For more information on the APA format, see http://www.apastyle.org.
Your directory of works cited must start at the conclusion of the paper on a page that is new the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list because of the author’s last name, utilizing the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Just the paper writing service initials of the first and middle names are given. If the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An, or The.
For dates, spell out the names of months within the text of your paper, but abbreviate them within the list of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the style that is day-month-year22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and become consistent. Aided by the month-day-year style, be sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics?
When reports were written on typewriters, the true names of publications were underlined since most typewriters had no way to print italics. You should still underline the names of publications if you write a bibliography by hand. But, by using a pc, then publication names must certanly be in italics as they are below. Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, this is certainly, the initial line of an entry must be left that is flush while the second and subsequent lines should always be indented 1/2″.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The APA guidelines specify using capitalization that is sentence-style the titles of books or articles, therefore you should capitalize only the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to the rule could be periodical titles and proper names in a title that should nevertheless be capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is accompanied by the amount number which, utilizing the title, is also italicized.
If there is one or more author, use an ampersand (&) prior to the name regarding the last author. If there are more than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the others.
Place the date of publication in parentheses soon after the name associated with author. Place a period after the closing parenthesis. Usually do not italicize, underline, or put quotes all over titles of shorter works within longer works.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of United States. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a reputation for the heroes for the imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: a guide that is practical creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: usually do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put an interval following the title. If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then supply the page range (in regular type) without “pp.” If the periodical does not use volume numbers, as in newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, July 21). California town counts town to big quake. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, 21) july. Heard any good books lately? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, February 15). Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved day, year, from full URL month
Note: When citing Internet sources, make reference to the precise website document. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) soon after the document title. Break a lengthy URL that would go to another line after a slash or before a period of time. Continually check your references to online documents. There is absolutely no period following a URL. Note: If you cannot find several of this information, cite what is available.
Devitt, T. (2001, August 2). Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html january
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom in our midst. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html june
Note: If a document is contained within a sizable and complex website (such as for instance that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization together with relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.